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Yuan Datou was one of the main currency in circulation during the period of the Republic of China. "Yuan Datou" is a colloquial term for Yuan Shikai's series of coins. To be precise, it is called "Yuan Shikai carrying Jiahe silver coin". In order to rectify the currency system, the Beiyang government issued 13 articles of the national currency regulations in February 1914, and decided to implement the silver standard system. According to the national currency regulations, "the unit price of Kuping pure silver is 6.4% and 8.0%, and it is named as Yuan", "one yuan silver coin, with a total weight of 7.2 cents, silver of 89, and copper of 11." there is no limit on the amount of one yuan silver coin, that is, one yuan silver coin is the standard loan currency with unlimited legal compensation. According to this rule, in December 1914 and February 1915, the general mint and Jiangnan Mint successively issued a silver coin with the head of Yuan Shikai engraved on its face, commonly known as "Yuan tou coin" or "yuan Datou".
The casting span was from 1914 to 1929, with a total circulation of more than 750 million pieces. The coins of this series weigh 26.6 g, 13.3 g, 5.3 g and 2.6 g respectively; the fineness is 89.1%, 84.5%, 80.4% and 82.5%; the outer ring of the coin is mainly straight tooth edge, and there are a few I-shaped edge and flower tooth edge.
The Qing Dynasty national currency is called Longyang, with silver coins as the main currency, mainly including Guangxu Yuanbao, Daqing silver coin, Xuantong Yuanbao, etc., with a total weight of (26.3-27 g), containing six quarters of pure silver (25.7856808 g), and its silver content is 89%.
After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Yuan Shikai became president in April 1912. In view of the complexity of the coinage and paper money at that time, there were more than 100 kinds of Chinese and foreign currencies in circulation, with different specifications, disorderly circulation, complicated conversion, and people's resentment. At the same time, they also wanted to solve the military expenditure problem by means of currency reform, so they decided to issue national currency. In order to improve his ruling position, Yuan Shikai cast his head on the coin face, and "yuan Dadou" came from it.
On February 7, 1914, Yuan Shikai promulgated the national currency regulations and the detailed rules for the implementation of the national currency regulations in the form of a presidential decree. The main content of the regulations is to stipulate that the right to issue coins should be owned by the government of the Republic of China. The government of the Republic of China will exchange and change the original silver dollar issued by various government bureaus. In a certain period of time, they are recognized as having a value equal to 1 yuan of national currency. The main currency of the national currency is 1 yuan silver yuan, which weighs 6.408 yuan of pure silver in Kuping. The material is silver 89%, copper 10%, tin 1%. The weight of a finished silver dollar is 7 coins and 2 cents. According to the regulations, there are four kinds of national currency: silver coin (one yuan, medium dollar, two jiao and one jiao), one nickel coin (five cents) and five copper coins (two cents, one cent, five percent, two percent and one percent). On the obverse side, Yuan Shikai's profile head and issue year number are engraved, and on the back are Jiahe ornaments and currency value. In the same year, yuan Datou was first minted at Tianjin mint, and then successively minted in Nanjing, Guangdong, Wuchang and other mints.
At that time, the conversion relationship of coins was the same as that of RMB. In decimal places, 1 yuan was equal to 10 Beiyang Mint horn, 1 jiao was equal to 10%, and 1 Fen was equal to 10%. Since the promulgation of the national currency regulations, Tianjin Mint began to cast yuan Datou 1 yuan silver yuan. Later, Nanjing, Guangdong, Wuchang and other mints began to issue yuan Datou silver yuan successively. Due to the regular type, novel design, clear weight and color, easy to identify, yuan Datou silver dollar was quickly accepted by the people and circulated throughout the country. Because yuan Datou's one yuan silver coin was uniform in type, strict in quality and weight, it was quickly recognized and accepted by the society. It gradually replaced Longyang in the Qing Dynasty in the domestic financial market and became the circulation field